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Flows with Chemical Reactions

Dr.-Ing. Vojislav Jovicic

Leiter Bereich 2: Strömungen mit chemischen Reaktionen
Pictures from combustion laboratory

Top: non-thermal (cold) plasma; Bottom: View into the novel baking oven with porous volumetric ceramic burners

Research group B2 Flows with Chemical Reactions – Combustion Technology was established as a part of LSTM in 1996. Research conducted by the B2 group is strongly application oriented and includes experimental research of flows with chemical reactions, as well as heat and mass transfer processes, all supported through virtual engineering and numerical simulations (CFD).

The most technically important representative of flows with chemical reactions are combustion processes, which represent the main research area of the B2 group. Different technologies have been developed here, from initial research to their technical implementation. The so-called volumetric ceramic burner technology (also known as porous burner technology) was developed at LSTM, it has been continuously optimized and adapted to a wide variety of applications, including steel, glass and food industry. Other important research point is investigation of non-thermal plasma, e.g. for water remediation and surface cleaning.

  • Entwicklung eines neuartigen Grundwassersanierungsverfahrens zur Beseitigung niedrig konzentrierter perfluorierter Tenside und ihrer Präkursoren mittels Behandlung durch Adsorption und nichtthermischem Plasma
    Delgado

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. February 2020 - 31. January 2022
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)

    Das Projekt zielt auf eine neuartige Wassersanierungsmethode zur Beseitigung perfluorierter Tenside (PFT) aus Grund- und Abwasser mit einem deutlich höheren Wirkungsgrad als bisher erreichbar. PFT sind Organofluorverbindungen, die aufgrund ihrer Bioakkumulation und schlechten Abbaubarkeit in der Umwelt sowie wegen ihrer negativen Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit bedenklich sind. In der Öffentlichkeit wurde man zunehmend auf PFT aufmerksam, daher bietet eine geeignete Wassersanierungsmethode einzigartige Marktchancen.
    Die Möglichkeiten zur Beseitigung von PFT aus kontaminierten Gewässern sind aufgrund ihrer extremen chemischen Stabilität begrenzt. Die Hauptbehandlungsmethode ist die Adsorption mittels Aktivkohle, was aber mit hohen Betriebskosten verbunden ist. Die vorgeschlagene Methode besteht aus einer nicht-thermischen atmosphärischen Plasmabehandlung, bei der der Hauptanteil an PFT zersetzt wird, sowie der Adsorption durch Ionenaustauscher, bei der der Restanteil an PFT adsorbiert wird. Hierbei dienen numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen sowie Dauertests an einem Testfeld zur Verifikation und Charakterisierung des neuartigen Wassersanierungskonzepts.

  • LOHCmobil - H2 Verbrenner/ Konstruktion und Erprobung des volumetrischen keramischen Brenners

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. January 2018 - 30. June 2020
    Funding source: Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)

    Das Ziel des Projekts ist die Entwicklung eines deutlich kompakteren und dynamischeren Wasserstoff-Freisetzungsverfahrens auf Basis eines volumetrisch-keramischen Brenners mit entsprechendem Kesselsystem zum Einsatz in stationären und mobilen Wasserstofffreisetzungsanlagen und dessen allgemeingültige effiziente Integration und Anpassung in diese Anlagen, um die Kommerzialisierung der Wasserstoffspeicherung in LOHC im Markt voran zu treiben. Das neue Verfahren soll den Eigenverbrauch an Wasserstoff für die Verbrennung bei einer 100 kW Wasserstofffreisetzungsanlage von derzeit etwa 45 kW auf insgesamt angestrebte 30 kW reduzieren. Zudem soll das neue Verfahren deutlich kompakter und dynamischer sein als derzeit auf dem Markt vorhandene Brennersysteme. Die ermöglichten, schnellen Lastwechsel sollen die Integration in mobile Anwendungen ermöglichen.

  • Systematische Untersuchungen zur Einsatzqualifizierung einer innovativen Backofentechnik mit volumetrischem keramischem Brenner (VKB) einstellbaren Wellenlängenspektrums sowie hoher Regeldynamik und Energieeffizienz

    (Third Party Funds Single)

    Term: 1. May 2014 - 31. October 2016
    Funding source: AIF Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen

    As part of thisresearch project, a possibility of application of a novel gas-fired baking oventechnology is to be developed, in which for the first time in the food industrya volumetric ceramic burner (VCB) is to be used. In many other industrialfields, VCB systems have demonstrated superior energy utilization and processecology. A VCB-based baking oven technology combines the benefits of energytransfer, primarily due to thermal radiation, with a broad power modulationrange. Thus, it promises not only the possibility of influencing the wavelengthspectrum and its radiation intensity, but also an otherwise unattainablecontrol dynamics, which is needed for the design and implementation of variousbaking programs, and the resulting increased energy efficiency. A VCB-based gas-firedbaking oven technology therefore offers particular advantages to small andmedium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which frequently vary their product range and productioncapacities.
    The baking oven type, the design of the thermal energy supply system, themoisture content in the baking oven and the baking time have a decisive effecton the resulting mass and energy transport conditions. However, there is a lackof knowledge about required optimal process conditions. Experimental studieshave shown the positive influence of thermal radiation on the baking process, e.g.reduction of energy required for the baking process and improvement of transferredthermal energy control and regulation. In this regard, there are so farinsufficient data regarding the optimal wavelength range for baking purposes.
    The aim of this research project is development and operational qualificationfor a novel gas-fired baking oven concept based on a volumetric ceramic burner.Potential for application of this technology requires a critical evaluation ofthe operating window in interaction with product properties and processparameters. An additional goal is to explore which process conditions can berealized in the novel gas-fired furnace through the specific use of theinnovation-bearing characteristics, its control and wide dynamic powermodulation range and increased energy efficiency. The interdisciplinary projectis intended to create the basis for a fast and broad transfer of an innovativebaking technology and is thus of relevance to both companies in the field of bakingoven construction and users in the baking industry. In particular, SMEs willbenefit from the results, as their competitiveness can be increased by costsavings of 20 to 30% of energy costs for baking processes.

Topics, currently or previously addressed in projects, include:

  • burners and combustion systems,
  • porous volumetric ceramic burner technology,
  • combustion of hydrogen and of low calorific gases,
  • heating systems,
  • industrial combustion units,
  • biomass gasification,
  • drying facilities,
  • steam generators,
  • thermal energy recovery from exhaust gases,
  • flue gas treatment,
  • fuel cells,
  • hot jets,
  • non-thermal (cold) plasma applications,
  • wastewater treatment,
  • investigation of high-temperature resistant ceramics,
  • numerical simulations of flows and of combustion processes,
  • development of sensors and measurement systems, etc.

Experimental facilities:

  • Five laboratories for the experimental research, including three bunker laboratories,
  • Three gas analyzers (for O2, CH4, CO2, CO, NO, NOx, etc.)
  • FID – analyzer (C3 equivalent)
  • Thermography system (50 Hz)
  • IR Color (Dual frequency) Pyrometer
  • 16 long-term test setups for burners (24/7 use)
  • High temperature furnace TMAX = 1750°C
  • Vacuum and atmospheric plasma generator

Numerical simulations are used in addition to the experimental investigation, by means of various commercial and open source simulation codes.